Here’s a look at the Apollo 14 lunar mission on its 50th anniversary

50 years ago this month Apollo 14 blasted off from Cape Canaveral. The mission was delayed for four months after the Apollo 13 mission astronauts did not land on the moon.

APOLLO 14 highlights

The crew was Alan B. Shepard Jr., Commander, Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module Pilot and Stuart A. Roosa, Command Module Pilot. It was the third manned lunar landing mission. It was launched from Kennedy Space Center at 1:03:22 PST on Jan. 31, 1971. Shepard Jr. was the oldest U.S. astronaut (48) when he commanded the mission.

Trouble on the way

Approximately three hours, 41 minutes after launch, difficulties were experienced in docking with the lunar module. Six attempts were required before a hard dock was achieved.

A color TV camera mounted on the descent stage gave live coverage of the descent of both astronauts to the moon. Five hours, 23 minutes after landing, the crew deployed the U.S. flag, a solar-wind composition experiment, erected the S-band antenna, off-loaded the laser ranging retroreflector and the Apollo lunar-surface experiments package. The astronauts used a handcart to carry their tools.

On the second day, the astronauts had a longer mission on the moon’s surface. Shepard set a record of traveling 9,000 feet from the module. He also used a makeshift golf club (6 iron) to hit two golf balls. The club is kept in an exhibit at the USGA Golf Museum. Shepard’s suit was so bulky he could only swing with one hand. The first ball was a shank, but he made solid contact on the second and said, “The shot soared for miles and miles and miles.” The ball’s time of flight was more than 30 seconds.

During the two moonwalks, the astronauts collected 94 pounds of rocks and soil for return to Earth. The samples were scheduled to go to 187 scientific teams in the United States, as well as 14 other countries for study and analysis.

Samples obtained of the Fra Mauro formation during Apollo 14 suggest that the impact that formed the Imbrium basin is no older than 4.25 billion years.


Mission commander Alan Shepard Jr. is shown during an EVA in a photo by Astronaut Edgar Mitchell on Feb. 6, 1971.

The liftoff of Antares from the moon was on schedule.

The command module Kitty Hawk splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean about 765 nautical miles south of Samoa on Feb. 9, exactly nine days and two minutes after launch.

This is the Apollo 14 crew patch designed by Shepard Jr., Roosa, and Mitchell. It features the astronaut lapel pin approaching the moon and leaving a comet trail from the liftoff point on Earth.

Image from NASA

Sources: NASA, Aerospace Legacy Foundation, Library of Congress, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, USGA

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Coronavirus: California passed 3 million cases, 34,000 deaths on Jan. 19

California’s case count has hit the 3 million milestone.

According to data gleaned from local public health departments across the state, there were 57,307 new cases and 700 new deaths reported from Tuesday, Jan. 19.

And, of the 3.2 million vaccinations distributed throughout the state, 1.39 million have been administered, tracking showed.

 

California regions and ICU capacity for Jan. 19

As ICU capacity dwindles in Southern California the percentages in this graphic have been adjusted by state public health officials to represent the high levels of COVID-19 patients among all ICU patients. More actual beds may be available.

Vaccines administered as of Jan. 17

The California Department of Public Health site shows a total of 3,226,775 vaccine doses, which includes the first and second dose, have been shipped to local health departments and health care systems as of Jan. 17.

The totals of vaccines administered across six different regions are in the maps below. As of Jan. 17, a total of 1,393,224 vaccine doses have been administered statewide.That’s up 609,748 from the Jan. 11 report. The state cautions that the numbers do not represent true day-to-day change as reporting may be delayed.

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Coronavirus state tracker: Hospitalizations in California surpass 14,000 people

Hospitalizations across the state continue to climb to all-time highs.

According to California public heath websites, there were 618 more patients hospitalized, bringing the total number of patients infected with coronavirus to 14,578 as of Dec. 13.

Intensive care capacity continues to decline in some regions. When public health officials adjust the percentage of actual open ICU beds to account for high levels of COVID-19 patients, the Southern California region fell to 2.7% ICU capacity available, while the San Joaquin Valley region’s ICU capacity available is nearly tapped out.

The state reported 24,588 new cases of the coronavirus, bringing the total number of infections to 1,572,755, according to official totals from California public health websites as of Dec. 13.

There were also 71 additional deaths reported in the state, bringing the total number of deaths to 21,044.

Three of the five California regions are under stay-at-home orders. Stay-at-home orders will be imposed within 24 hours for a region that has an ICU hospital capacity below 15%. They then stay in effect for at least three weeks.

 

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Johns Hopkins University, the World Health Organization, the California Department of Public Health, The Associated Press, reporting counties and news sources

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Coronavirus state tracker: Hospitalizations down 17% in last 14 days in California on August 24

According to the California COVID-19 dashboard there are 5,618 patients hospitalized in California on Monday, Aug. 24. This is a decrease of 1,152 patients (17%) over the last 14 days.

The state is reporting that 31% of its ICU beds are available, 65% of its ventilators are available and ICUs occupancy has declined by 17.6% in the last 14 days.

The state had conducted 1,654,133 tests in the last 14 days with a 6.5% test positivity rate. There have been more than 10.65 million tests in the state since March.

Orange County and San Diego County were dropped from the state’s monitoring list as of Sunday. They are the only two counties in Southern California to attain that status.

All data on the state tracker is preliminary and subject to change.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Johns Hopkins University, the World Health Organization, the California Department of Public Health, The Associated Press, reporting counties and news sources

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Coronavirus: Here are some case trends in the U.S., California and its counties

Experts are looking at trends and averages to know when it’s safe to open up the nation, state and counties. There are some good trends and some not so good trends to consider.

California and U.S.

Data from Johns Hopkins University’s Coronavirus Resource Center shows that California’s three-day moving average of new cases is steadily increasing. You can follow the trends of every state and country on the Coronavirus Resource Center website.

California’s test positivity rate for a 14-day period ending Friday was 4.4% (out of 53,473 tests). You can find the daily trend for the state and county here at the California Department of Public Health’s dashboard.

Here’s a list of criteria the state has for reopening. You can see how all the counties are doing at this link to the California Department of Health’s data table.

Trends by county

Here’s a look at some of the hardest-hit counties, how they are measuring up to the state’s reopening criteria and each one’s seven-day case rates.

You can follow Southern California county totals at this SCNG website.

Maps show daily count of coronavirus cases, deaths in Southern California by county

You can follow Bay Area county totals at this BANG website.

The national picture:

Sources: County health departments, John’s Hopkins University, COVID-19 Tracking Project, California Department of Health, Our World in Data

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Here are disinfectants for use against the coronavirus

Thanks to COVID-19, we’ve never had to wash our hands more and spring cleaning is even more important.

It’s not easy being clean

The COVID-19 virus is about 10,000 times smaller than the period at the end of this sentence. How long it can linger on surfaces is not certain.

A new analysis published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that the virus can remain viable in the air for up to 3 hours, on copper for up to 4 hours, on cardboard up to 24 hours and on plastic and stainless steel up to 72 hours.

A report by Johns Hopkins University found coronavirus molecules remain very stable in external cold, or artificial as air conditioners in houses and cars.

The virus also needs moisture to stay stable, and especially darkness. Therefore, dehumidified, dry, warm and bright environments will degrade it faster.

UV light on any object that may contain it breaks down the virus protein.

The virus cannot go through healthy skin.

Meaning of clean

Clean or disinfected? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gets technical about the difference.

Cleaning refers to the removal of germs, dirt and impurities from surfaces. Cleaning does not kill germs.

Disinfecting refers to using chemicals to kill germs on surfaces. This process does not necessarily clean dirty surfaces or remove germs, but by killing germs on a surface after cleaning, it can further lower the risk of spreading infection.

The coronavirus is a protein molecule, it is not killed, but decays on its own. The disintegration time depends on the temperature, humidity and type of material where it lies.

The CDC urges people to wash their hands regularly with soap for 20 seconds.

If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

Hard surfaces

The CDC recommends wearing disposable gloves when cleaning and disinfecting surfaces.

Hard surfaces should be cleaned using a detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection.

For disinfection, diluted household bleach solutions, alcohol solutions with at least 70% alcohol and most common EPA-registered household disinfectants should be effective. The EPA lists more than 350 disinfectants to help fight the virus.

Prepare a bleach solution by mixing: 5 tablespoons (1/3 cup) bleach per gallon of water or 4 teaspoons bleach per quart of water

Products with EPA-approved emerging viral pathogens are expected to be effective against COVID-19.

Do not mix list

Bleach and vinegarBleach and ammoniaBleach and rubbing alcoholHydrogen peroxide and vinegar

Soft (porous) surfaces

For carpeted floor, rugs and drapes, remove visible contamination if present and clean with appropriate cleaners indicated for use on these surfaces.

After cleaning, launder items and if possible, use the warmest appropriate water setting then dry items completely.

The virus is not a living organism like bacteria; antibodies cannot kill what is not alive.

Do not shake used or unused clothing, sheets or cloth. While the virus is glued to a porous surface, it is very inert and disintegrates only between 3 hours on fabric.

If someone is sick

Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces daily in household common areas.

In the bedroom/bathroom dedicated for an ill person, consider reducing cleaning frequency to as-needed.

As much as possible, an ill person should stay in a specific room.

The caregiver can provide personal cleaning supplies for an ill person’s room and bathroom. These supplies include tissues, paper towels, cleaners and EPA-registered disinfectants.

Bathrooms should be cleaned and disinfected after each use by an ill person. If this is not possible, the caregiver should wait as long as practical after use by an ill person to clean and disinfect the high-touch surfaces.

Household members should follow home care guidance when interacting with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 cases. More info: coronavirus.org

Wash hands regularly

Hand-washing study

These are some of the results of a 2013 study by Michigan State University’s School of Hospitality Business that was published in the Journal of Environment Health. When asked, 95% of people claimed to wash their hands after using public restrooms, but the observational study found the following:

The study also found that:

People are more likely to wash their hands in the morning than in the afternoon or evening.

More women than men wash their hands with soap.

Health care and hand-washing

In the history of hand-washing, it’s helped the most in hospitals.

In the 1850s, Florence Nightingale, considered the founder of modern nursing, insisted people wash their hands in war hospitals during the Crimean War. This resulted in greatly reduced infection rates among wounded soldiers.

In today’s hospitals, the most commonly used method to track hand hygiene compliance is direct observation, or someone watching health-care workers.

Germs in the house

The invisible enemy isn’t alone. Here’s a look at germs around the house compiled by British company SCS Cleaning. The information comes from the British National Health Service and the BBC.

According to Authority Dental, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide effectively reduces human coronaviruses on a toothbrush. You can mix hydrogen peroxide with water (1 teaspoon of HP, 1 cup of water) to dilute it. Soak a brush for 1 minute then rinse it under running water.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, SCS Cleaning, BBC, Michigan State University

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California’s minimum wage just went up and will continue to rise

California’s minimum wage is gradually going to become the highest in the nation and could affect nearly 5 million workers.

A 2018 study by the UC Berkeley Labor Center defines low-wage workers as those earning less than two-thirds of the median full-time wage in California.

About 32% of California’s workers, some 4.9 million, earned less than $14.35 an hour in 2017.

The chart below shows California’s minimum wage increases since 1964 and projections for the next several years.

Wages by state

California has one of the highest minimum wage rates ($12) in the nation.

Seattle has the highest minimum wage rate at $16 for large employers and $15 for small employers.

New York City’s minimum wage is $15 for all employers.

Worker profile

Figures may not add up to 100 percent due to rounding.

 

Low wages, by industry

Those with the highest share of workers earning low wages, 2016

Agriculture, forestry and fishing: 71%

Restaurants and other food services: 66%

Grocery stores: 54%

Community, family and child care services: 51%

Administrative and business services: 49%

Where the low-wage workers are

 

 

Source: UC Berkeley Labor Center, California Department of Industrial Relations, U.S. Department of Labor

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Protecting whistleblowers is almost as old as America

The U.S. has had laws to protect whistleblowers since 1777. Today we look at a few cases in the government and private sector.

The term “whistleblowing” was not popular until the 1970s, but seven months after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress passed the first whistleblower protection law.

The first to seek protection were 10 American sailors and Marines who had reported improper behavior by the Continental Navy Commodore Esek Hopkins. Hopkins’ brother was the governor of Rhode Island, who lobbied for his appointment to the position.

Hopkins‘ men sought protection for speaking out against their commander’s treatment of British prisoners, quick temper, misconduct and poor character. The group feared being branded as traitors by their commander and sought protection from Congress.

Hopkins was suspended and relieved of his command in 1778. He lashed out by filing a criminal libel suit in Rhode Island against the 10 petitioners, and two whistleblowers who lived in Rhode Island were arrested and jailed.

The two appealed to the Continental Congress, which responded by passing a law to protect the men — and future whistleblowers.

False Claims Act

During the Civil War, many unscrupulous contractors had defrauded the Union Army by selling it low-quality products such as uniforms that disintegrated in the rain. The government was short of inspectors, so it authorized the public to be whistleblowers.

After passage of the act in 1863, a whistleblower was entitled to half of the damages won by the government.

Parts of the False Claims Act are still in use, and in 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice obtained nearly $3 billion in settlements and judgments in cases involving fraud.

More recent measures

Two of the most recent federal laws established to protect those who call out perceived corruption are:Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Enacted to protect federal employees from retaliation who disclose government waste, fraud or abuse of power.

The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. It extended protection to federal employees in the intelligence community and others with security clearance.

According to the law firm Hagen Berman, which handles whistleblower cases, the most common types are:

  1. Health care fraud
  2. Defense contractor fraud
  3. Tax fraud
  4. Securities fraud
  5. Procurement fraud

Recent trends

The Aug. 12 anonymous whistleblower complaint regarding a telephone call with President Donald Trump and a foreign official was filed with the inspector general of the intelligence community, who found a “credible concern” with the complaint.

Regardless of the politics involved, whistleblower claims in the private sector and the government appear to be on the rise.

Whistleblower complaints handled by the U.S. Department of Labor from 2012-2018 increased 74%.

Big awards for whistleblowers

In the private sector, many whistleblowers have received awards for helping the Securities and Exchange Commission with cases of fraud. The SEC has ordered wrongdoers in enforcement matters involving whistleblower information to pay more than $975 million in sanctions from 2000-2017. These are the biggest awards from 2000-2017, in millions.

In 2017, California, New York, Texas, Florida and New Jersey yielded the highest number of whistleblower tips.

  • California, 500
  • New York, 438
  • Texas, 250
  • Florida, 229
  • New Jersey, 175

Most common whistleblower tips to the SEC

Since August 2011, the SEC has received more than 22,000 whistleblower tips including 4,400 in 2017.

Whistleblower award recipients

Messenger protection

A 2015 study titled “Whistleblower Protection Laws in G20 Countries” examined protections in the public and private sector. The U.S. had the best score.

The chart shows select countries’ scoring. The best score is 28 and the worst is 84.

The study rated countries in 14 categories that included oversight, confidentiality and remedies.

Anti-whistleblower laws

Ag-gag laws are anti-whistleblower laws that apply within the agriculture industry. Ag-gag laws currently exist in seven states, penalizing whistleblowers who investigate the day-to-day activities of industrial farms, including the recording, possession or distribution of photos, video and/or audio at a farm. In 2013, the California legislature voted against an Ag-gag bill sponsored by the California Cattlemen’s Association.

These are different whistleblowers than those that call out fraud, as some seek employment from agricultural businesses in order to spy for animal rights groups.

The origin of the whistle

Nobody knows how long the whistle has been around, but the first pea whistles used by police were in London.

In 1883, Joseph Hudson created the first London police whistle to replace the hand rattle. Whistles were mostly thought of as toys until enclosing a pellet inside the policeman’s whistle created the unique warbling sound. The police whistle could be heard over a mile away and was adopted as the official whistle of the London bobby.

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How California avocados have a global influence

Holy guacamole, it’s peak avocado season in California. Americans are eating more avocados than ever, especially the Hass variety, which was created in California.

California’s own

There are more than 1,000 varieties of avocados listed in the University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources database. Here are some of the most common varieties grown commercially in California:

Hass

  • Pebbly skin that turns from green to purplish when ripe
  • Oval shape
  • Small seed, 5-12 ounces

Hass is the king of California’s commercial avocado crop, as it makes up 95% of the avocados grown in the state and 80% of those grown worldwide. It was developed in La Habra Heights by Rudolph Hass. Patented in the 1930s, the Hass variety overtook Fuerte avocados as the leading commercial crop in the 1970s. The original tree stood for 76 years before root rot ruined it in 2002. Hass has one of the longest harvest seasons, usually beginning in February. Hass fruit has excellent flavor and shipping qualities. A single tree can produce up to 200 pounds annually (about 500 pieces), but most average around 60 pounds and 150 pieces.

Fruit maturation times are highly dependent on climate and environment, so a Hass avocado is not ready to eat at the same time of year in the Central Valley as it is in a cool coastal climate.

Bacon

  • Green skin, oval shape
  • Medium/large seed, 6-12 ounces

A bacon-flavored avocado sounds tasty, but this avocado was named for the person that bred it, James Bacon. It originated in Buena Park and was introduced in 1951. Its flesh has an unusually pale yellow/green color and has a high oil content. It matures from November-January in Orange County and December-March in Ventura County. The trees have a good frost tolerance.

Fuerte

  • Smooth skin, pear shape
  • Medium seed, 5-14 ounces

Trees introduced as budwood in 1911 from Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico. It is a hybrid Mexican variety that is ready to pick in November and is good through March. Fuerte has been a longtime California commercial variety valued for its winter season. Its skin thickness is medium thin and the seed size is medium large.

Reed

  • Slight pebbling, round shape
  • Medium seed, 8-18 ounces

Originated in Carlsbad by James Reed. Introduced in 1960 from a chance seedling planted in 1948.

Zutano

  • Shiny skin, pear shape
  • Medium seed, 6-14 ounces

Originated in Fallbrook by W.L. Ruitt. Introduced in 1941 from a selection made in 1926.

GEM

  • Black skin, pear shap
  • Medium seed, 7-11 ounces

Patented in 2003, GEMs might be seen in California stores for the first time this season.

Fruitful facts

Avocados turn brown the longer they are exposed to oxygen. Covering with a plastic wrap can block oxygen. Adding lemon or lime juice, or chilling the avocado, can delay the browning as well.

Heavyweight

According to Guinness World Records, the heaviest avocado was grown in Hawaii in 2018 and weighed 5 pounds, 8 ounces.

Does size matter?

According to the Scoop Blog by Dzung Duong on Californiaavocado.com, the size of an avocado does not indicate the fruit quality or stage of ripeness. An avocado’s seed actually grows with the fruit, so the seed-to-fruit ratio will always be close to the same. Pinkerton avocados are known to yield the most fruit per tree.

Cooking it up

Avocado oil is used as a high heat cooking oil with a smoking point of about 520 degrees.Its oil is also used in cosmetics or as a skin cream.

To learn more about planting, caring and the history of avocados go to the UC Riverside avocado site: ucavo.ucr.edu

U.S. availability of avocados

The U.S. imports about seven times as many avocados as it grows domestically.

Sources: USDA Economic Research Service, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Californiaavocado.com Photos by staff, The Associated Press and David Stottlemyer for the University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

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Success and failure of protected species in California

The 2019 theme for Earth Day is ‘protect our species’ so today we look at some that are threatened or near extinction in California.

The California flag features a grizzly bear that roamed the state, stood 8 feet and weighed more than a ton. The bear was considered a threat to livestock and people and has been extinct since the 1920s. The California grizzly was designated the official state animal in 1953, 30 years after it was killed off. Gray wolves were the other large mammal to join the path of extinction in the 1920s but now are moving back in from other states to Northern California.

Giant of the skies

California condors were listed as endangered in 1967 and were nearly extinct by 1987, when all of the wild birds (22-27) were captured to save the population. The birds were kept in breeding facilities at the Los Angeles Zoo and the San Diego Wild Animal Park.

The captive breeding of the birds was a gamble that paid off. Condor recovery is slow because their reproductive rate is one egg laid every year or two. By 1992, several of the birds were released back into the wild in Ventura County and by 1994, captive condors had laid more than 100 eggs.

Biologists have released California condors from captivity every year since 1996.

condor stats

Getting the lead out

Condors’ food includes animals that were shot, and lead poisoning from spent ammunition was found to be partially responsible for the population’s decline.

California bans lead ammunition in the outlined area shown on the map, but as of July 1, the prohibition will be statewide.

The ban only applies to hunters; target shooting and personal protection are not impacted. Many shooting ranges will recycle lead ammo shot by customers.

California lead ammo ban

condor comeback stats

The list of fully protected animals

The state Department of Fish and Wildlife issues citations to those suspected of breaking laws protecting wildlife. Violations involving endangered species can bring fines up to $50,000 and up to a year in jail, while crimes against threatened species can result in a $25,000 fine and six months behind bars.

Some species listed are extremely rare in California, such as the wolverine, whose numbers were thought to be as low as eight 10 years ago in the Tahoe National Forest and which have not been seen much since.

Check this nest

The Institute for Wildlife Services has a high-definition cam giving a live online view of a massive bald eagle nest at Big Bear Lake. Two chicks have hatched and the mother and father are taking turns watching them.

protected animalsBack from the brink

Two other California species that have bounced back from near extinction are the sea otter and the Channel Islands dwarf fox. Sea otters were hunted down to about 2,000 by 1911. Their worldwide population is about 100,000 today.

The foxes’ numbers were down to about 100 in 1999. The foxes were mostly hunted by golden eagles, which resulted in some birds being relocated. Some foxes were bred in captivity and now there are more than 2,000 on the islands.

Mammals

  • Morro Bay kangaroo rat
  • Bighorn sheep
  • Northern elephant seal
  • Guadalupe fur seal
  • Ring-tailed cat
  • Pacific right whale
  • Salt-marsh harvest mouse
  • Southern sea otter
  • Wolverine

Fish

  • Colorado River squawfish
  • Thicktail chub
  • Mohave chub
  • Lost River sucker
  • Modoc sucker
  • Shortnose sucker
  • Humpback sucker
  • Owens River pupfish
  • Unarmored three-spine stickleback
  • Rough sculpin

Amphibians

  • Santa Cruz long-toed salamander
  • Limestone salamander
  • Black toad
  • Reptiles
  • Blunt-nosed leopard lizard
  • San Francisco garter snake

Birds

  • American peregrine falcon
  • Brown pelican
  • California black rail
  • California clapper rail
  • California condor
  • California least tern
  • Golden eagle
  • Greater sandhill crane
  • Light-footed clapper rail
  • Southern bald eagle
  • Trumpeter swan
  • White-tailed kite
  • Yuma clapper rail

Sources: California Fish and Wildlife, The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, NatureServe, National GeographicPhotos: SCNG, NOAA

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